Saturday, June 6, 2020

debates in the field of global strategy - 3025 Words

debates in the field of global strategy (Essay Sample) Content: DEBATES IN THE FIELD OF GLOBAL STRATEGYNameInstitutionDate Introduction International business and strategic management are merged by a global strategy which is an important discipline in many business schools. Despite global strategy discipline being faced with multiple challenges, significant strides have been made. Research and practical application debates have significantly contributed to moving the field forward. This paper will offer a critical review of current global debates strategies: cultural distance versus institutional distance debate; regional versus global geographic diversification debate; divergent in corporate ruling versus convergence in corporate decision and international versus domestic in corporate social responsibility. Reasons as to why we put the focus on the four debates strategies include: to obtain a difference on global strategy research, to be able to select debates that differ in characteristics. The four debates were chosen since each of them has a way to which they address the issue of global strategy audience, each has a targeted research group that it addresses (Peng, 2007). Due to the incorporation of these debates, it is easy to have an encompassing difference to conduct research on as well as obtain the significant issues in the field of global strategy research. In literature, some debates have existed such as the firm performance and the internationaliza tion. In this paper, we have identified only the discussions with the difference in time such as institutional versus cultural distance debate that has been described by Kogut and Sighn (2008) as the oldest debates. However, due to the recent line of activities within the field of global strategy, these debates have been identified as the world leading debates as they may have contributed to the increased application of institutionally based techniques in comprehensive policy research. In addition, all other debates have their history as well with the most disclosures being in the recent past. As a result, the scenario has made us identify disputes with systematic reviews. Definition of global strategy There exists a different view that tries to define the meaning of world strategy. One view holds that it is a particular form of multinational enterprise technique that offers all world countries equal treatment at the global market. This is regarded as a multinational company well known across international, transnational and multi-domestic landscapes. In real world applications, this strategy appears to exist hardly in many MNEs and the few that implement it end up in significant problems. On the other hand, another view holds that it defines a strategy of organizational structure in the world and is seen as the first theory of successful competition. This second definition of global strategy will be widely explored abd critiqued in this paper given that these two debates included in the paper entirely focus on international aspects. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance feature major domestic requirements (Peng and Lee, 2008). Institutional based-overview For a long period, international business researchers have invested on the issues that are related to environment such as culture, political challenges as well as context. For the purpose of consolidating this literature, it is important to research further on all the existing works that have close relations with the external environment on a perspective known as institutional based (Hofstede et al, 2002). In broader terms, institutions can be defined as rules that govern the process. Global firms should have a good understanding of both formal and informal regulations that governs vested countries. The institutionally based view suggests that different rules around the world governs the game of global strategies. All the four debates whose discussions are included in this paper contain interesting components that connect them with the institutional view. Both formal and informal environmental elements are actively engaged in the debate between institutional versus cultural distance thus giving them to connect directly to the institutional view roots. In addition, cultural distance is based on informal aspects in institutional à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"view while institutional distance has both formal and informal components of institutional-view based. The debate between regional geographic versus global diversification is described as cultural and political environmental debate. In addition, the divergence and convergence debate in corporate ruling describes the governing systems in a global position. Two competitive proportions are suggested by an institutional-based view i.e. converging of the formal institution and lack of proper implementation of the convergence mechanisms by the informal institutions. Finally, firms have to deal with all elements in the global institutional environment for the purpose of connecting domestic versus international CSR debate (Rugman and Verbeke 2004). At times firms functions in extreme environments under different governance at a global institutional environment. Each of these four debates is discussed in depth. Divergence versus Convergence in Corporate Governance Debate Since the release of Industrialism, researchers have diversified to cultural based beliefs, attitudes, and consumption patterns. The main issue is whether cultural values are derived from national cultures and participation of ideology. Divergence perspective is followed by those who support national cultures while those who pursue convergence perspective believe in economic ideology. Following this debate there are no clear answers and the debate keeps on widening up in the two schools of thought. According to corporate governance research, questions arise on whether corporate governance is diverging or converging on a global scope. Convergence experts argue that globalization will be beyond process whereby firms will have to adapt to best practices globally (Singh, 2007). The Anglo-American-style of governance procedures reflect that companies following their style pay high premiums. This is due to the convergence of international rule of conduct. Prior to this, diverse set of pr essures leads to firms voluntarily adapting to international rules. Furthermore, critics have indicated that governance activities will continue to expand globally. The structure of responsibilities and rights is within the individuals with a stake in the firm. To deal with major conflict, the United States, and the United Kingdom promote principal-agent conflicts. In the Asia, Europe and Latin might be competitive during production since the major challenge facing them is how to control shareholders. The solution lies on how to reduce the monitoring and ownership. Findings show that owners are allowed more ownership and authority than other in other countries. Two points are made concerning the case of cross-listed firms. One is that as compared to the firms in the United Kingdom and the United States, these companies have a concentration of ownership, low institutional ownership, more inside directors and a larger board of trustees (Tihanyi, 2005). In a nutshell, it shows that cr oss-listed foreign companies or firms do not adopt the United States and the United Kingdom governance practices. Secondly, in practice laws applied by the listed companies in the United States are not actually implemented. Divergence advocates for the possibility of export regulations from the United States and the United Kingdom while convergence experts express the implication of same governance regulation being used globally. Institutional versus cultural distance debate For a long time culture has been regarded as a section of international business research and this has made not to be part of significant research describing the global strategy and in this case, policy is viewed as macro while culture is viewed as micro. Over the last decade, there has been an emergence of the institutional view of global strategy. At this point, comprehensive strategy is viewed as fundamentally influenced by both informal and formal institutions which are also known as the game rules. An engaging debate on the role of culture in an institutional view of global strategy and identify institution and culture as the most expensive to develop and determine the differences between tradition and culture (Jiang, 2008). Great Hofstadterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s law of cultural classification debates the function of culture in the global surrounding. Under the law, culture is defined as cumulative of beliefs, social values, patterns of behaviours and norms. Since global businesses transactions interact with different societal values, culture is therefore identified as part of all business transactions. The question of whether institutional or cultural distance is a better measurement tool is the current debate of institution versus culture. The study of national cultural differences between home country of multinational enterprise and other operating countries hosted are all included in the cultural distance while on the other hand, institutional distance involves a combination of cultural differences and other inclusive factors such as cognitive identification, normative pressure, and regulatory differences. Institutional development, marker elements, and socio-political stages can be used to explain cult ural attributes. According to the studies by Peng (2007) that examine cultural distance, role indicates that differences in culture of both the host and home market increase while the multinational capacity to operate in a host market reduces. This describes why it is hard to achieve excellent efficiency on current operations when the cultural distance is significant. As a result, high complexity levels, as well as uncertainties in managerial decision making, might occur as a result of hig...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Lowell s Theories On Extraterrestrial Life And Canals On...

Introduction Percival Lowell’s theories considering extraterrestrial life on Mars creates a great deal of controversy; whether or not the general public and the science community should recognize him for his achievements. Lowell’s novels regarding extraterrestrial life and canals on Mars would evoke the public s attention. Which would cause the red planet to be under debate whether or not there is proof that contemporary life does exist on Mars. This debate would also begin to question Lowell’s validity as a professional astronomer. Since his theories had no factual proof or evidence, it was natural to question his knowledge of astronomy. Percival Lowell’s hypotheses in subject to extraterrestrial life, canals and vegetation on the planet Mars erroneously praises Lowell for his achievements in astronomy. Although most readers of eighteenth century astronomy and science fiction argue that, Lowell was a valid astronomer and that his theories set the debate of extraterres trial life in motion. Closer examination shows that Lowell’s was delusional and his assumptions would benefit science fiction more than actual science. The importance of understanding Lowell’s accusations in astronomy is to encourage confirmation of aberration of Mars and extraterrestrial life. 2. Examination Of Percival Lowell It is important to give context of Percival Lowell, because his personality and circumstances shape his thesis on extraterrestrial life on Mars. Lowell was â€Å"no interloperShow MoreRelatedLife on Other Planets. Essay1587 Words   |  7 Pagesthemselves asking is Is there life on other planets? Since the first famously documented UFO sighting in 1947, the idea of extra-terrestrial life has been debated almost non-stop. The subject has inspired many TV programs, such as The X-Files, and films (Mars Attacks, Independence Day, and the Men in Black films to name but a few). Scientists have come up with many new ideas and ways of trying to either prove or disprove the existence of life elsewhere. Mars is a very similar planet to earth

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of George Weigel s Book Letters Of A Young...

Through thick and thin, Catholicism has been around for quite a long time. With millions of followers from around the globe, it has grown to become one of the largest religious faiths. Every single one of these Christians has their own unique story about how their faith has significantly affected their lives. In his book, George Weigel shares his experience as a Catholic growing up in late 1950’s and 1960’s in Baltimore. On page 9 of his book â€Å"Letters to a Young Catholic†, he says â€Å"The real ‘Catholic difference’ †¦ was, at bottom, a way of seeing the world† (Weigel 9). This means that what separates a Catholic from the rest is our experience and knowledge of God, through which we are given the power to experience the world differently than most others can. I do feel this way as well. Being Catholic, I feel that I definitely experience the world differently than others. Whenever I see or hear about a tragic event that has occurred, I can hold solace in the idea that everything is all part of God’s master plan and that it will all work out in the end. If I am every struggling for anything, whether it an exorbitant amount of homework I have for a weekend or an difficult test or quiz coming up that I haven’t had time to study for, I know that I can trust in God and that everything will be alright in the long run. Being Catholic has also taught me to be thankful for the smaller things in life, because it is the smaller things that can add up to make a bad day turn around. Like

Evaluating Vision and Mission Statements at PepsiCo †Free Samples

Questions: 1.How do the mission and vision statements relate to the eight characteristics of an ideal mission statement and vision statement? What are the gaps? 2.How useful are the mission and vision statements of the PepsiCo in linking organizational priorities with individual and team performance? Answers: Key characteristics of ideal mission and vision statement of PepsiCo Characteristics Yes/No Mission statement Basic product and service to be offered Yes Primary markets No Unique benefits, Features and advantage No Technology to be used No Fundamental concerns Yes Managerial philosophy of the firms Yes Public image sought out No Self-concept of business adopted Yes Brief-so that the employees can remember it Yes Verifiable No Bound by timeline No Current-updated by ongoing basis No Vision statement Focused-lists a few aspects of organisations performances Yes Understandable Yes Inspiring Yes Stretch No 1. An ideal mission and vision statements have some of the general principles. The mission statement must be succinct that can preferably brief to describe the target of the organisation (King, Case Premo, 2014). The mission statement should be memorable as the organisation is able to remember the key elements. Mission statement needs to inspire the employees and stakeholders of the organisation as the unique set of words focusing on different sides of the organisation. The organisation needs to make the mission statement a realistic one so that the description must be presented centric and it resembles the aim of the organisation. The mission statement is the description of the present and it does not highlight the vision of the future (Efe Ozer, 2015). One of the important factors of the mission statement is to highlight the current factors of the environment. The priorities of the organisation should be highlighted through this. Organisations priorities can change with time and this needs to be focused on the current mission of the organisation. The vision statement of an organisation needs to be feasible and precise. It is completely future-centric that leads to actions of the organisation (Drezner, 2017). The vision statement must be motivating and it should be distinctive. The vision statement should highlight objectives of the organisation with components of the organisational strategy. A mission and vision statement must confirm the principles that an idea mission and vision statements have. There is no guarantee that themanagement can highlight all the elements of a mission statement; however, how it is well-worded. Mission statement needs to increase the value of the organisation along with the vision it formulates, communicates and disseminates (Kopaneva Sias, 2015). 2. The mission statement of PepsiCo mainly focuses on consumers around the globe, affordability, convenience, products and financial rewards to employees and investors. Long-term sustainable growth is another factor of the organisation that shows the organisation targets the all types of consumers across the world, not any specific target customer group. PepsiCo wants to make such products that can be applied to all types of customers not just the one group of the irrespective of culture, background and variable (PepsiCo.com, 2018). The affordability is the significance of pricing and the word' premier describes the standard quality beverage items offered by the company. The partnership with the employees and investors signify the community partnership and stakeholders' engagement with the organisation. Core values of the organisation are integrity, honesty and fairness to all. The vision statement of the organisation implies majorly top financial performance, sustainability and corporate social responsibilities. The main focus of the organisation is on the corporate stewardship and triple bottom line of the CSR. PepsiCo is aiming towards the basic business expectation of financial stability, environmental sustainability and stakeholders' preferences. The Three P's' factors of the organisation can enhance the brand image of the organisation (Kopaneva Sias, 2015). The major influences have been given to the corporate policies and organisational development towards sustainability. References Drezner, N. D. (2017). Philanthropy Education: Setting the Mission and Vision for a New Journal within the Landscape of Our Field.Philanthropy Education,1(1), v-xii. Efe, I., Ozer, O. (2015). A corpus-based discourse analysis of the vision and mission statements of universities in Turkey.Higher Education Research Development,34(6), 1110-1122. King, D. L., Case, C. J., Premo, K. M. (2014). Does company size affect mission statement content?.Academy ofStrategic Management Journal,13(1), 21. Kopaneva, I., Sias, P. M. (2015). Lost in translation: Employee and organizational constructions of mission and vision.Management Communication Quarterly,29(3), 358-384. What We Believe - PepsiCo.com. (2018). Pepsico.com. Retrieved 2 March 2018, from https://www.pepsico.com/sustainability

Monday, April 20, 2020

The Chipotle Restaurants Mission

Chipotle is one of the most successful quick-serve restaurant chains within the industry. The company’s main distinctive feature is the focus on the healthy and organic food with references to the idea of sustainability.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on The Chipotle Restaurant’s Mission specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From this point, the company’s mission â€Å"Food with Integrity† can be discussed as the driving force of the restaurant chain’s significant progress. Although the company successfully operates within the highly competitive market during a long period of time, some new strategies should be proposed to contribute to the company’s further growth. The main factors which are associated with the company’s development are the concentration on the quality of the products which are ordered and provided quickly; the development of the â€Å"Food with I ntegrity† mission with accents on healthy organic products grown at the local territories; the unique combination and taste of fresh and healthy items; the focus on ideas of sustainability along with following the principles of the social responsibility; the strong customer loyalty; the intensive cooperation with the social media and support of the charity programs; the strong relations with suppliers; the effective leadership; the problems with the international expansion and usage of the foreign suppliers; the effective leadership and guaranteed high profits basing on the company’s leader position within the market (Appendix 1). In spite of the fact that the company successfully operates within the extremely competitive environment overcoming a lot of challenges, risk of new entrants is high, and the company needs the more innovative approach to its development in order to respond to the modern trends within the market. Thus, it is possible to propose such alternativ es for the company’s strategy as the development of the new menu following the principles of sustainability and using the high-quality healthy and organic products; the promotion of the â€Å"Food with Integrity† mission in its connection with the healthy lifestyle trends basing on the social media; the provision of the flexible approaches to cooking the menu items; the improvement of the cooperation with suppliers. To choose the most appropriate variant of the new strategy for Chipotle, it is important to note that the diverse and competitive market provides the great choice of any food according to unique recipes. That is why, the strategy should contribute to the further increase of the customer loyalty. Moreover, referring to the SWOT Matrix, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the most effective and realistic strategies should be based on the analysis of the company’s strengths and opportunities (Appendix 2). To receive the definite advantage over the competitors within the industry, it is necessary to respond to the customers’ interests and expectations. The promotion of the â€Å"Food with Integrity† mission in its connection with the healthy lifestyle trends, basing on the social media, can be discussed as the effective strategy to attract more customers.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to focus on the traditional principles of the â€Å"Food with Integrity† mission, basing on the company’s classical healthy and organic food popular with the public. The accents should be shifted to the accentuation of the associated charity programs, fitness programs, and health programs. The community’s health and welfare can become the company’s main focus. The implementation plan should include such stages as the statement of the food’s costs and the perc entage used for charity, the connection of healthy food and public fitness programs, the control of the public’s health with the help of special equipment, and the focus on the environment sustainability in connection with the organic food. The possible obstacles are the immediate increase of costs which will be overcome and competitors’ imitations. The ethical implications of the strategy are closely associated with the question of social responsibility. Following the proposed program, the company can not only attract more customers but also meet the needs of the community and respond to the environmental issues. Appendix: SWOT Matrix Strengths Weaknesses Focus on providing organic and healthy food â€Å"Food with Integrity† mission High quality and unique taste of products Customer loyalty Intensive cooperation with the social media Effective leadership Strong and effective relations with suppliers Stable profits The conservative development of th e company within the competitive and diverse market The comparatively high costs of the sustainable food production The problems with the international expansion Opportunities SO Strategies WO Strategies Flexibility in menu items, ordering, and providing food The intensification of the healthy lifestyle trends with the focus on the healthy food The further improvement of cooperation with organic product suppliers The customers’ support of the sustainability ideas To develop the new menu where the focus on the healthy and organic food is preserved, but the item choice is wider and rather innovative (S1, S3, O1) To promote the healthy lifestyle trends with references to the social media basing on the â€Å"Food with Integrity† mission (S2, S5, O2, O4) 1. To shift the accents from the conservative following the organic food ideals to the flexibility and innovation in menu items (W1, O1) Threats ST Strategies WT Strategies The increase of the competitor s’ number The economic impact on the price of organic products The ineffectiveness of the chain’s strategy within the developing market 1. To concentrate on the cooperation with suppliers to avoid the significant increase in the organic products’ price (S7, T2) 1. To correlate the costs with the organic products’ price with the help of the new financial strategies (W2, T2) This case study on The Chipotle Restaurant’s Mission was written and submitted by user PhantomReporter to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Poeffect essays

Poeffect essays Essay written by Henry George When reviewing Nathaniel Hawthornes Tales, Edgar Allen Poe pronounced that the short story, if skillfully written, should deliver a single preconceived effect- an effect upon which incidents be fashioned to accommodate that effect. Edgar Allen Poe was indeed a skillful writer. His short story, "The Fall of the House of Usher" is a flawless example of a story in which all elements contribute to the delivery of a single emotional effect. Poe accomplishes this by achieving a perfect tone, developing suspense and unifying stylistic elements thereby meeting his own criteria. In his pronouncement Poe also wrote that "In the whole composition there should be no word written, of which the tendency, direct or indirect, is not to the one pre-established design." Thus, in "The Fall of the House of Usher" Poe creates a perfect tone critical to the delivery of his preconceived effect. The senses of "insufferable gloom," "utter depression of soul" and " sinking, sickening of the heart" which pervade the narrators spirit immediately establish the tone. The narrators description of the scene as "dull," "dark," "bleak," "desolate" and "terrible" all function in communicating the tone. These concrete and denotative words ensure a clear and solid tone is conveyed to the reader thereby contributing to the overall effect of terror. The regular use or repetition of the words "dark," "gloomy" and "oppressive" in some form serves function to further define and emphasize a perfect tone. It also perceivable that Poes choice in the narrators role being the participant supports his intent to communicate consistent feelings; hence consistent tone. In order to strengthen his already established tone, Poe selectively uses imagery in scenes of terrible nature. The imagery ...

Friday, February 28, 2020

McDonald's as the Part of the Modern Culture Assignment

McDonald's as the Part of the Modern Culture - Assignment Example The researcher states that globalization is a broader term, however; the word globalization has been discussed in this article from the perspective of open markets and free entry and exit in international markets. The term in this article, therefore, indicates the expansion of McDonald’s into international markets without facing any significant challenge. The growth and expansion of globalization have ensured that the American products reach to the world markets. This was after the cold war when America became the superpower of the world which allowed American organizations to get access to the international markets. Based on the overall quality of the American products, new products were successfully launched in the international markets with more success as compared to the domestic or other international companies. The products which are going through the same problem as McDonald’s include soft drinks as well as other food products. This may be due to the fact that th ese products lack the product variety and diversification. This decline may be due to a strong emphasis on individuality and change in the Western societies as existing products may fail to provide a new change to the customers. The overall strategic response to such situations may, therefore, include the product development wherein these organizations must focus on new product development and add more varieties to their existing product lines. The most difficult aspect of doing this kind of business is the fact that despite offering low-cost products, the lack of individualism or rather excess of standardization becomes a headache. Organizations often fail to recognize the limits of their existing policies and continue to operate such policies without considering the end result.